LOST CITIES OF THE WORLD

 

It’s hard to imagine how an entire city can get lost but that’s exactly what has happened to the lost cities on this list. There are actually many reasons why a city has to be abandoned. War, natural disasters, climate change and the loss of important trading partners to name a few. Whatever the cause, these lost cities were forgotten in time until they were rediscovered centuries later.

Carthage

Carthage

Located in present-day Tunisia, Carthage was founded by Phoenician colonists and became a major power in the Mediterranean. The resulting rivalry with Syracuse and Rome was accompanied by several wars with respective invasions of each other’s homeland, most notable the invasion of Italy by Hannibal. The city was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans went from house to house, capturing, raping and enslaving the people before setting Carthage ablaze. However, the Romans re-founded Carthage, which became one of the Empire’s largest and most important city. It remained an important city until it was destroyed a second time in 698 AD during the Muslim conquest.

Ciudad Perdida

Ciudad Perdida

Ciudad Perdida (Spanish for “Lost City”) is an ancient city in Sierra Nevada, Colombia, believed to have been founded around 800 AD. The lost city consists of a series of terraces carved into the mountainside, a net of tiled roads and several small circular plazas. Members of local tribes call the city Teyuna and believe it was the heart of a network of villages inhabited by their forebears, the Tairona. It was apparently abandoned during the Spanish conquest.

Troy

Troy

Troy is a legendary city in what is now northwestern Turkey, made famous in Homer’s epic poem, the Iliad. According to Iliad, this is where the Trojan War took place. The archaeological site of Troy contains several layers of ruins. The layer Troy VIIa was probably the Troy of Homer and has been dated to the mid- to late-13th century BC.

Memphis

Memphis

Memphis, founded around 3,100 BC, is the legendary city of Menes, the King who united Upper and Lower Egypt. Early on, Memphis was more likely a fortress from which Menes controlled the land and water routes between Upper Egypt and the Delta. By the Third Dynasty, Saqqara had become a sizable city. It fell successively to Nubia, Assyria, Persia, and Macedonia under Alexander the Great. Its importance as a religious centre was undermined by the rise of Christianity and then of Islam. It was abandoned after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640 AD. Its ruins include the great temple of Ptah, royal palaces, and a colCaralossal statue of Rameses II. Nearby are the pyramids of Saqqara.

Caral

Caral

Located in the Supe Valley in Peru, Caral is one of the most ancient lost cities of the Americas. It was as inhabited between roughly 2600 BC and 2000 BC. Accommodating more than 3,000 inhabitants, it is one of the largest cities of the Norte Chico civilization. It has a central public area with six large platform mounds arranged around a huge plaza. All of the lost cities in the Supe valley share similarities with Caral. They had small platforms or stone circles. Caral was probably the focus of this civilization.

Babylon

Babylon

Babylon, the capital of Babylonia, an ancient empire of Mesopotamia, was a city on the Euphrates River. The city degenerated into anarchy circa 1180 BC, but flourished once again as a subsidiary state of the Assyrian Empire after the 9th century BC. The brilliant color and luxury of Babylon became legendary from the days of Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 BC), who is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens. All that remains of the famed city today is a mound of broken mud-brick buildings and debris in the fertile Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq.

Taxila

Taxila

Located in northwestern Pakistan, Taxila is an ancient city that was annexed by the Persian King Darius the Great in 518 BC. In 326 BC the city was surrendered to Alexander the Great. Ruled by a succession of conquerors, the city became an important Buddhist centre. The apostle Thomas reputedly visited Taxila in the 1st century AD. Taxila’s prosperity in ancient times resulted from its position at the junction of three great trade routes. When they declined, the city sank into insignificance. It was finally destroyed by the Huns in the 5th century.

Sukhothai

Sukhothai

Sukhothai is one of Thailand’s earliest and most important historical cities. Originally a provincial town within the Angkor-based Khmer empire, Sukhothai gained its independence in the 13th century and became established as the capital of the first united and independent Tai state. The ancient town is reported to have had some 80,000 inhabitants. After 1351, when Ayutthaya was founded as the capital of a powerful rival Tai dynasty, Sukhothai’s influence began to decline, and in 1438 the town was conquered and incorporated into the Ayutthaya kingdom. Sukhothai was abandoned in the late 15th or early 16th century.

Timgad

Timgad

Timgad was a Roman colonial town in Algeria founded by the Emperor Trajan around 100 AD. Originally designed for a population of around 15,000, the city quickly outgrew its original specifications and spilled beyond the orthogonal grid in a more loosely-organized fashion. In the 5th Century, the city was sacked by the Vandals and two centuries later by the Berbers. The city disappeared from history, becoming one the lost cities of the Roman Empire, until its excavation in 1881.

Mohenjo-daro

Mohenjo-daro

Built around 2600 BC in present-day Pakistan, Mohenjo-daro was one of the early urban settlements in the world. It is sometimes referred to as “An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis”. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, which were laid out in perfect patterns. At its height the city probably had around 35,000 residents. The buildings of the city were particularly advanced, with structures constructed of same-sized sun dried bricks of baked mud and burned wood. Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Valley civilization vanished without a trace from history around 1700 BC until discovered in the 1920s.

Sanchi

Sanchi

The Sanchi site has a building history of more than one thousand year, starting with the stupas of the 3rd century BC and concluding with a series of Buddhist temples and monasteries, now in ruins, that were build in the 10th or 11th centuries. In the 13th century, after the decline of Buddhism in India, Sanchi was abandoned and the jungle quickly moved in. The lost city was rediscovered in 1818 by a British officer.

Chan Chan

Chan Chan

The vast adobe city of Chan Chan in Peru was the largest city in pre-Columbian America. The building material used was adobe brick, and the buildings were finished with mud frequently adorned with patterned relief arabesques. The centre of the city consists of several walled citadels which housed ceremonial rooms, burial chambers and temples. The city was built by the Chimu around 850 AD and lasted until its conquest by the Inca Empire in 1470 AD. It is estimated that around 30,000 people lived in the city of Chan Chan.

Mesa Verde

Mesa Verde

Mesa Verde, in southwestern Colorado, is home to the famous cliff dwellings of the ancient Anasazi people. In the 12th century, the Anasazi start building houses in shallow caves and under rock overhangs along the canyon walls. Some of these houses were as large as 150 rooms. By 1300, all of the Anasazi had left the Mesa Verde area, but the ruins remain almost perfectly preserved. The reason for their sudden departure remains unexplained. Theories range from crop failures due to droughts to an intrusion of foreign tribes from the North.

Persepolis

Persepolis

Persepolis (Capital of Persia in Greek) was the center and ceremonial capital of the mighty Persian Empire. It was a beautiful city, adorned with precious artworks of which unfortunately very little survives today. In 331 BC, Alexander the Great, in the process of conquering the Persian Empire, burnt Persepolis to the ground as a revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens. Persepolis remained the capital of Persia as a province of the great MaVijayanagaracedonian Empire but gradually declined in the course of time.

Vijayanagara

Vijayanagara

Vijaynagar was once one the largest cities in the world with 500,000 inhabitants. The Indian city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the power of the Vijayanagar empire. During this time, the empire was often in conflict with the Muslim kingdoms. In 1565, the empire’s armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat and Vijayanagara was taken. The victorious Muslim armies then proceeded to raze, depopulate, and destroy the city and its Hindu temples over a period of several months. Despite the empire continuing to exist thereafter during a slow decline, the original capital was not reoccupied or rebuilt. It has not been occupied since.

Calakmul

Calakmul

Hidden inside the jungles of the Mexican state of Campeche, Calakmul is one of the largest Maya cities ever uncovered. Calakmul was a powerful city that challenged the supremacy of Tikal and engaged in a strategy of surrounding it with its own network of allies. From the second half of the 6th century AD through to the late 7th century Calakmul gained the upper hand although it failed to extinguish Tikal’s power completely and Tikal was able to turn the tables on its great rival in a decisive battle that took place in 695 AD. Eventually both cities succumbed to the spreading Maya collapse.

Palmyra

Palmyra

For centuries Palmyra (“city of palm trees”) was an important and wealthy city located along the caravan routes linking Persia with the Mediterranean ports of Roman Syria. Beginning in 212, Palmyra’s trade diminished as the Sassanids occupied the mouth of the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Roman Emperor Diocletian built a wall and expanded the city in order to try and save it from the Sassanid threat. The city was captured by the Muslim Arabs in 634 but kept intact. The city declined under Ottoman rule, reducing to no more than an oasis village. In the 17th century its location was rediscovered by western travelers.

Ani

Ani

Situated along a major east-west caravan route, Ani first rose to prominence in the 5th century AD and had become a flourishing town and the capital of Armenia in the 10th century. The many churches built there during this period included some of the finest examples of medieval architecture and earned its nickname as the “City of 1001 Churches”. At its height, Ani had a population of 100,000 to 200,000 people. It remained the chief city of Armenia until Mongol raids in the 13th century, a devastating earthquake in 1319, and shifting trade routes sent it into an irreversible decline. Eventually the city was abandoned and largely forgotten for centuries. The ruins are now located in Turkey.

Palenque

Palenque

Palenque in Mexico is much smaller than some of the other lost cities of the Mayan, but it contains some of the finest architecture and sculptures the Maya ever produced. Most structures in Palenque date from about 600 AD to 800 AD. The city declined during the 8th century. An agricultural population continued to live here for a few generations, then the lost city was abandoned and was slowly grown over by the forest.

Pompeii

Pompeii

On August 24, 79 AD, the volcano Vesuvius erupted, covering the nearby town Pompeii with ash and soil, and subsequently preserving the city in its state from that fateful day. Everything from jars and tables to paintings and people were frozen in time. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum, were abandoned and eventually their names and locations were forgotten. They were rediscovered as the results of excavations in the 18th century. The lost cities have provided an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of people living two thousand years ago.

Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan

In the 2nd century BC a new civilization arose in the valley of Mexico. This civilization built the flourishing metropolis of Teotihuacán and it’s huge step pyramids. A decline in population in the 6th century AD has been correlated to lengthy droughts related to the climate changes. Seven centuries after the demise of the Teotihuacán empire the pyramids of the lost city were honored and utilized by the Aztecs and became a place of pilgrimage.

Petra

Petra

Petra, the fabled “rose red city, half as old as time”, was the ancient capital of the Nabataean kingdom. A vast, unique city, carved into the side of the Wadi Musa Canyon in southern Jordan centuries ago by the Nabataeans, who turned it into an important junction for the silk and spice routes that linked China, India and southern Arabia with Egypt, Greece and Rome. After several earthquakes crippled the vital water management system the city was almost completely abandoned in the 6th century. After the Crusades, Petra was forgotten in the Western world until the lost city was rediscovered by the Swiss traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.

Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat

Angkor is a vast temple city in Cambodia featuring the magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century AD. These include the famous Angkor Wat temple, the world’s largest single religious monument, and the Bayon temple (at Angkor Thom) with its multitude of massive stone faces. During its long history Angkor went through many changes in religion converting between Hinduism to Buddhism several times. The end of the Angkorian period is generally set as 1431, the year Angkor was sacked and looted by Ayutthaya invaders, though the civilization already had been in decline. Nearly all of Angkor was abandoned, except for Angkor Wat, which remained a Buddhist shrine.

Machu Picchu

#1 of Lost Cities

One of the most famous lost cities in the world, Machu Picchu was rediscovered in 1911 by Hawaiian historian Hiram after it lay hidden for centuries above the Urubamba Valley. The “Lost City of the Incas” is invisible from below and completely self-contained, surrounded by agricultural terraces and watered by natural springs. Although known locally in Peru, it was largely unknown to the outside world before being rediscovered in 1911.

Source: Touropia

SOME OF THE HEALTH BENEFETS OF JAMBUL FRUIT

 

 

Jambul is also called Jamun in India. In English, it is called by various names like, black plum, java plum, malabar plum, jambolan etc.

The Jamun tree is native to India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Indonesia. However it is now being grown in Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago. It was introduced in Florida, USA in 1911.

 

It is an evergreen tree that lives for over 100 years. A good shade providing tree, all parts of the Jamun tree are useful in one way or the other. The tree grows well in tropical to sub tropical areas.

 

The tree flowers with the onset of summer in March/April and bears fruit in May/June when it is hotter. The fruits’ skin is in various shades of purple, some almost black coloured. It ia an oblong shaped berry and the ripe berry has a deep purple flesh that colours the mouth and tongue for a few hours after it is eaten. Thr fruit tastes sweet and tarty with an astringent action.

 

Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine use the fruit, seeds, bark, leaves etc to treat a variety of health problems.

Uses Of Various Parts Of The Jamun Tree

 

The wood is used for making cheap furniture, railway sleepers and as a foundation to instal motors in wells as the wood is not only strong but withstands moisture as well. It is also used to make agricultural equipments.

The leaves are used to decorate marriage pandals.

The seeds are used to make herbal teas for use by diabetics.

The fruits are used to prepare vinegar, wines, jams, jellies, squashes etc.

Nutrients In Jamun

 

Jambul Fruit

 

The seeds contain the glucoside jambolin which prevents the conversion of starch into sugar and this benefits by controlling blood sugar levels. They also contain many flavonoids, phenols and are rich in protein and calcium.

 

It is a very good source of carotene, iron, folic acid, calcium potassium, magnesium,phosphorus and sodium. It has high levels of Vitamin C.

 

The sugars are in the form of glucose and fructose which hydrate, cool and refresh the heat stressed body.

 

Jambuls are a rich source of antioxidants,and phytochemicals like anthocyanins, glucosides,ellagic acid, oxalic acid, kaemferol etc. The seeds and leaves contain essential oils.

The following are some of the health benefits of jambul.

 

Jambul is very good to treat Gout. Boil the bark well in water till the water thickens. Cool and apply this watery paste on the affected part to relieve pain and inflammation.

 

In Diabetes, drink jamun juice and mango juice mixed in equal quantities.

 

To remove body weakness, treat anaemia, increase memory and remove sexual weakness, take 1 tsp each of jamun juice, honey and amla juice everyday in the morning.

 

Eating jamuns stimulates the liver and relieves bladder problems.

 

To increase appetite and treat constipation take vinegar made of raw jamun fruits with equal quantity of water, twice a day.

 

To treat stomatitis and mouth and teeth problems apply jamun juice and also drink it.

 

For treating pimples, grind the dry seeds. Add some cow’s milk and apply on the pimples while going to bed at night. Wash in the morning. Continue for a few days.

 

For diarrhoea, mix a little rock salt in jamun juice and drink.

 

For Acidity, eat jamuns with black salt and roasted cumin seed powder.

 

To maintain a healthy voice and relieve hoarseness, gargle with a concoction of jamun seeds boiled in water for some time and cooled.

 

For those suffering from renal stones, eating powdered jamun seeds with yoghurt helps.

 

For children suffering from bedwetting, give the child 1/2 tsp powdered jamun seeds with water 2 times a day for some days to stop this habit.

 

Jamun stimulates the melanin making cells and thus helps in curing leucoderma.

 

Risk of heart attacks can be reduced by eating jambul regularly as it prevents hardening of the arteries.

 

To stop vomiting drink jamun juice.

 

For boils and other skin disorders apply some jamun seeds mixed with a little oil on the affected area.

Some Precautions

 

Never eat Jambul on empty stomach.

 

Never drink milk after consuming jamun.

 

Do not eat them in excess as it may cause body aches and fevers.

 

Sources: Rajan Singh Jolly

 

 

 

 

10 MOST FAMOUS TREES IN THE WORLD

 

 

Arbol del Tule

Arbol del Tule

Árbol del Tule, a Montezuma Cypress, is located in the town center of Santa María del Tule in the Mexican state of Oaxaca . It has the stoutest trunk of any tree in the world although the trunk is heavily buttressed, giving a higher diameter reading than q true cross-sectional of the trunk. It is so large that it was originally thought to be multiple trees, but DNA tests have proven that it is only one tree. The tree is estimated to be between 1,200 and 3,000 years old.

Cotton Tree

Cotton Tree

The Cotton Tree is an historic symbol of Freetown, the capital city of Sierra Leone. According to legend, the Cotton Tree became an important symbol in 1792 when a group of former African American slaves, who had gained their freedom by fighting for the British during the American War of Independence, settled the site of modern Freetown. They landed on the shoreline and walked up to a giant tree just above the bay and held a thanksgiving service there to thank God for their deliverance to a free land.

Boab Prison Tree

Boab Prison Tree

The Boab Prison Tree is a large hollow tree just south of Derby in Western Australia. It is reputed to have been used in the 1890s as a lockup for Indigenous Australian prisoners on their way to Derby for sentencing. In recent years a fence was erected around the tree to protect it from vandalism.

Major Oak

Major Oak

The Major Oak is a huge oak tree in the heart of Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, England. According to local folklore, it was Robin Hood’s shelter where he and his band of outlaws slept. The famous tree is about 800 to a 1000 years old. In 1790, Major Hayman Rooke, a noted antiquarian, included the tree in his popular book about the ancient oaks of Sherwood. It thus became known as The Major‘s Oak.

Lone Cypress

Lone Cypress

The Lone Cypress Tree near Monterey is probably the most famous point along the 17-Mile Drive, a scenic road through Pacific Grove and Pebble Beach. The road winds through miles of breathtaking coastal views of the Pacific, with turnouts along the way at the most historical and picturesque sites. The Monterey Cypress is a species of cypress that is endemic to the Central Coast of California. In the wild, the species is confined to two small populations, near Monterey and Carmel.

Tree of Life

Tree of Life

The Tree of Life in Bahrain is a mesquite tree which grows in the middle of desert. The tree is said to be 400 to 500 years old. Its long roots probably have found some underground water source, but it is still a miracle as it is the only green living organism living in a vast and barren desert. The local inhabitants believe that this was the actual location of the Garden of Eden.

Socotra

Socotra Dragon Trees

The Dragon blood tree is arguably the most famous and distinctive plant of the island of Socotra. It has a unique and strange appearance, having the shape of an upside-down umbrella. This evergreen species is named after its dark red resin, that is known as “dragon’s blood”. The bizarre shape enables the tree to have optimal survival in arid conditions. The huge packed crown provides sufficient shade in order to reduce evaporation.

General Sherman

General Sherman

General Sherman is a Giant Sequoia located in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park in California. The famous trees of the Giant Forest are among the largest trees in the world. In fact, if measured by volume, five of the ten largest trees on the planet are located within this forest. At 11.1 meter (36.5 ft) along the base he General Sherman tree is the largest of them all. The tree is believed to be between 2,300 and 2,700 years old.

Cedars of God

Cedars of God

The Cedars of God is a small forest of about 400 Lebanon Cedar trees in the mountains of northern Lebanon. They are among the last survivors of the extensive forests of the Cedars of Lebanon that thrived in this region in ancient times. The Cedars of Lebanon are mentioned in the Bible over 70 times. The ancient Egyptians used its resin in mummification and King Solomon used the famous trees in the construction of the First Temple in Jerusalem.

#1 of Famous Trees In The World

Avenue of the Baobabs

The Avenue of the Baobabs is a group of famous trees lining the dirt road between Morondava and Belon’i Tsiribihina in western Madagascar. Its striking landscape draws travelers from around the world, making it one of the most visited tourist attractions in Madagascar. The Baobab trees, up to 800 years old, did not originally tower in isolation over the sere landscape of scrub but stood in dense tropical forest. Over the years, as the country’s population grew, the forests were cleared for agriculture, leaving only the famous baobab trees.

Source: Touropia

 

HOW TO STAY YOUNG

First,I was dying to finish my high school and start college And then I was dying to finish my college and start working Then I was dying to marry and have children And then I was dying for my children To grow old enough So I could go back to work But then I was dying to retire And now I am dying… And suddenly I realized I forgot to live

                      

Please don’t let this happen to you Appreciate your current situation And enjoy each day … Old friend

 

To make money we loose our health,

And then to restore our health we loose our money…

We live as if we are never going to die,

And we die as if we never lived…

                                          HOW TO STAY YOUNG

 

1. Throw out nonessential numbers. This includes age, weight, and height. Let the doctors worry about them. That is why you pay ‘them’

 

2. Keep only cheerful friends. The grouches pull you down.

 

3. Keep learning. Learn more about the computer, crafts, gardening, whatever. Never let the brain idle. ‘An idle mind is the devil’s workshop.’

 

4. Enjoy the simple things.

 

5. Laugh often, long and loud. Laugh until you gasp for breath.

 

6. The tears happen. Endure, grieve, and move on. The only person, who is with us our entire life, is ourselves. Be ALIVE while you are alive.

 

7. Surround yourself with what you love , whether it’s family, pets, keepsakes, music, plants, hobbies, whatever. Your home is your refuge.

 

8. Cherish your health: If it is good, preserve it. If it is unstable, improve it. If it is beyond what you can improve, get help.

 

9.   Don’t take guilt trips. Take a trip to the mall, even to the next county; to a foreign country but NOT to where the guilt is.

 

 10. Tell the people you love that you love them, at every opportunity.  AND ALWAYS REMEMBER : Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but   by the moments that take our breath away.

Worry about nothing, pray about everything!!!

TECHNOLOGY OVER THE CENTURIES

Technology, science, and inventions have progressed at an accelerated rate during the hundred years of the 20th century, more so than any other century.

We began the 20th century with the infancy of airplanes, automobiles, and radio, when those inventions dazzled us with their novelty and wonder.

We end the 20th century with spaceships, computers, cell phones, and the wireless Internet all being technologies we can take for granted.

 

I900

The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

Charles Seeberger redesigned Jesse Reno’s escalator and invented the modern escalator.

 

1901

King Camp Gillette invents the double-edged safety razor.

The first radio receiver, successfully received a radio transmission.

Hubert Booth invents a compact and modern vacuum cleaner.

 

1902

Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner.

The lie detector or polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie.

George Claude invented neon light.

 

1903

Edward Binney and Harold Smith co-invent crayons.

Bottle-making machinery invented by Michael J. Owens.

The Wright brothers invent the first gas motored and manned airplane.

Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.

William Coolidge invents ductile tungsten used in lightbulbs.

 

1904

Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan.

Benjamin Holt invents a tractor.

John A Fleming invents a vacuum diode or Fleming valve.

 

1905

Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2.

invents Cornflakes.

Lewis Nixon inven

1906

William Kellogg ts the first sonar like device.

Lee Deforest invents electronic amplifying tube (triode).

 

1907

Leo Baekeland invents the first synthetic plastic called Bakelite.

Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.

The very first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu.

 

1908

The gyrocompass invented by Elmer A. Sperry.

Cellophane invented by Jacques E. Brandenberger.

Model T first sold.

J W Geiger and W Müller invent the geiger counter.

Fritz Haber invents the Haber Process for making artificial nitrates.

1909

Instant coffee invented by G. Washington.

 

1910

Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.

Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public on December 11, 1910, in Paris.

 

1911

Charles Franklin Kettering invents the first automobile electrical ignition system.

 

1912

Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.

The first tank patented by Australian inventor De La Mole.

Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy in 1912.

 

1913

The crossword puzzle invented by Arthur Wynne.

The Merck Chemical Company patented, what is now know as, ecstasy.

Mary Phelps Jacob invents the bra.

Gideon Sundback invented the modern zipper.

 

1914

Garrett A. Morgan invents the Morgan gas mask.

 

 1915

Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor co-invented Pyrex in New York City.

 

1916

Radio tuners invented, that received different stations.

Stainless steel invented by Henry Brearly.

 

1917

Gideon Sundback patented the modern zipper (not the first zipper).

 

1918

The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this invention.

Charles Jung invented fortune cookies.

 

1919

The pop-up toaster invented by Charles Strite.

Short-wave radio invented.

The flip-flop circuit invented.

The arc welder invented.

 

1920

The tommy gun patented by John T Thompson.

The Band-Aid (pronounced ‘ban-‘dade) invented by Earle Dickson.

 

 1921

Artificial life begins — the first robot built.

John Larson invented the lie detector.

 

1922

Insulin invented by Sir Frederick Grant Banting.

The first 3-D movie (spectacles with one red and one green lens) is released.

 

1923

Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal.

The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladimir Kosma Zworykin.

John Harwood invented the self-winding watch.

Clarence Birdseye invents frozen food.

 

1924

The dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice and Kellogg.

Notebooks with spiral bindings invented.

 

1925

The mechanical television a precursor to the modern television, invented by John Logie Baird.

 

1926

Robert H. Goddard invents liquid-fueled rockets.

 

 1927

Eduard Haas III invents PEZ candy.

JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch.

Philo Taylor Farnsworth invents a complete electronic TV system.

Technicolor invented.

Erik Rotheim patents an aerosol can.

Warren Marrison developed the first quartz clock.

Philip Drinker invents the iron lung.

 

1928

Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

Bubble gum invented by Walter E. Diemer.

Jacob Schick patented the electric shaver.

 

1929

American, Paul Galvin invents the car radio.

Yo-Yo re-invented as an American fad.

 

1930

Scotch tape patented by 3M engineer, Richard G. Drew.

The frozen food process patented by Clarence Birdseye.

Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents neoprene.

The “differential analyzer”, or analog computer invented by Vannevar Bush at MIT in Boston.

Frank Whittle and Dr Hans von Ohain both invent a jet engine.

 

1931

Harold Edgerton invented stop-action photography.

Germans Max Knott and Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope.

 

1932

Polaroid photography invented by Edwin Herbert Land.

The zoom lens and the light meter invented.

Carl C. Magee invents the first parking meter.

Karl Jansky invents the radio telescope.

 

1933

Frequency modulation (FM radio) invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong.

Stereo records invented.

Richard M. Hollingshead builds a prototype drive-in movie theater in his driveway.

 

1934

Englishmen, Percy Shaw invents cat eyes or roads reflectors.

Charles Darrow claims he invented the game Monopoly.

Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting – first magnetic recording.

 

1935

Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents nylon ( polymer 6.6.)

The first canned beer made.

Robert Watson-Watt patented radar.

 

1936

Bell Labs invents the voice recognition machine.

Samuel Colt patents the Colt revolver.

 

1937

Chester F. Carlson invents the photocopier.

The first jet engine is built.

 

1938

The ballpoint pen invented by Ladislo Biro.

Strobe lighting invented.

LSD was synthesized on November 16, 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann of Sandoz Laboratories.

Roy J. Plunkett invented tetrafluoroethylene polymers or Teflon.

Nescafe or freeze-dried coffee invented.

The first working turboprop engine.

 

1939

Igor Sikorsky invents the first successful helicopter.

The electron microscope invented.

 

1940

Dr William Reich invents the orgone accumulator.

Peter Goldmark invents modern color television system.

Karl Pabst invents the jeep.

 

1941

Konrad Zuse’s Z3, the first computer controlled by software.

Aerosol spray cans invented by American inventors, Lyle David Goodloe and W.N. Sullivan.

Enrico Fermi invents the neutronic reactor.

 

1942

John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer.

Mueller designs a turboprop engine.

 

1943

Synthetic rubber invented.

Richard James invents the slinky.

James Wright invent silly putty.

Swiss chemist, Albert Hofmann discovered the hallucinogenic properties of LSD.

Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau invent the aqualung.

 

1944

The kidney dialysis machine invented by Willem Kolff.

Synthetic cortisone invented by Percy Lavon Julian.

 

1945

Vannevar Bush proposes hypertext.

The atomic bomb invented.

 

 1946

The microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer.

 

1947

British/Hungarian scientist, Dennis Gabor, developed the theory of holography.

Mobile phones first invented. Although cell phones were not sold commercially until 1983.

Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invent the transistor.

Earl Silas Tupper patented the Tupperware seal.

 

1948

The Frisbee ® invented by Walter Frederick Morrison and Warren Franscioni.

Velcro ® invented by George de Mestral.

Robert Hope-Jones invented the Wurlitzer jukebox.

 

1949

Cake mix invented.

 

The 50s have always been described as a conservative period socially, however, advancements in technology were about to change all that. During the 50s, television became the dominant media. While television had been invented many years previous, the 50s saw nearly every family buying a television set, and nearly everyone watching television for longer and longer periods of time. Television broadcasts became our number one source of news, information, and entertainment during the 50s. Live news broadcasts were now possible coast to coast, and this has changed our world forever.

 

1950

The first credit card (Diners) invented by Ralph Schneider.

 

1951

Super glue invented.

Power steering invented by Francis W. Davis.

Charles Ginsburg invented the first video tape recorder (VTR).

 

1952

The first patent for bar code issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver.

The first diet soft drink sold.

Edward Teller and team build the hydrogen bomb.

 

1953

Radial tires invented.

The first musical synthesizer invented by RCA.

David Warren invented the black box – flight recorder.

Transistor radio invented by Texas Instruments.

 

1954

Oral contraceptives invented – the pill.

The first nonstick teflon pan produced.

The solar cell invented by Chaplin, Fuller and Pearson.

Ray Kroc started McDonalds.

 

1955

Tetracycline invented.

Optic fiber invented.

 

1956

The first computer hard disk used.

The hovercraft invented by Christopher Cockerell.

Bette Nesmith Graham invented “Mistake Out,” later renamed Liquid Paper, to paint over mistakes made with a typewriter.

 

1957

Fortran (computer language) invented.

 

1958

The computer modem invented.

Gordon Gould invents the laser.

The Hula Hoop invented by Richard Knerr and Arthur “Spud” Melin.

The integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.

 

1959

The internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch.

Barbie Doll invented.

Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce both invent the microchip.

 

 

The 60s have been described by historians as the ten years having the most significant changes in history. By the end of the 60s humanity had entered the spaceage by putting a man on the moon. The 60s were influenced by the youth of the post-war baby boom – a generation with a fondness for change and far-out gadgets.

 

1960

The halogen lamp invented.

 

1961

Valium invented.

The nondairy creamer invented.

 

1962

The audio cassette invented.

The fiber-tip pen invented by Yukio Horie.

Spacewar, the first computer video game invented.

Dow Corp invents silicone breast implants.

 

1963

The video disk invented.

 

1964

Acrylic paint invented.

Permanent-press fabric invented.

BASIC (an early computer language) is invented by John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.

 

1965

Astroturf invented.

Soft contact lenses invented.

NutraSweet invented.

The compact disk invented by James Russell.

Kevlar invented by Stephanie Louise Kwolek.

 

1966

Electronic Fuel injection for cars invented.

 

1967

The first handheld calculator invented.

 

1968

The computer mouse invented by Douglas Engelbart.

The first computer with integrated circuits made.

Robert Dennard invented RAM (random access memory).

 

1969

The arpanet (first internet) invented.

The artificial heart invented.

The ATM invented.

The bar-code scanner is invented.

 

 

The 70s began the age of the practical computer made possible by the invention of the floppy disk and the microprocessor that occurred during the 70s.

 

1970

The daisy-wheel printer invented.

The floppy disk invented by Alan Shugart.

 

1971

The dot-matrix printer invented.

The food processor invented.

The liquid-crystal display (LCD) invented by James Fergason.

The microprocessor invented by Faggin, Hoff and Mazor.

VCR or videocassette invented.

 

1972

The word processor invented.

Pong first video game invented by Nolan Bushnell.

Hacky Sack invented by John Stalberger and Mike Marshall.

 

1973

Gene splicing invented.

The ethernet (local computer network) invented by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox.

Bic invents the disposable lighter.

 

1974

The post-it notes invented by Arthur Fry.

Giorgio Fischer, a gynecologist from Rome, Italy, invents liposuction.

 

1975

The laser printer invented.

The push-through tab on a drink can invented.

 

1976

The ink-jet printer invented.

 

1977

Magnetic resonance imaging invented by Raymond V. Damadian.

 

1978

Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston invented the VisiCalc spreadsheet.

The artificial heart Jarvik-7 invented by Robert K. Jarvik.

 

1979

Cell phones invented.

Cray supercomputer invented by Seymour Cray.

Walkman invented.

Scott Olson invents roller blades.

 

 

Many of the most popular consumer products still around today were invented in the 80s for example: cell phones and home computers.

The 80s saw the rise of the multi-national corporations.

 

1980

The hepatitis-B vaccine invented.

 

1981

MS-DOS invented.

The first IBM-PC invented.

The scanning tunneling microscope invented by Gerd Karl Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer.

 

1982

Human growth hormone genetically engineered.

 

1983

The Apple Lisa invented.

Soft bifocal contact lens invented.

First Cabbage Patch Kids sold.

Programmer Jaron Lanier first coins the term “virtual reality”.

 

1984

The CD-ROM invented.

The Apple Macintosh invented.

 

1985

Windows program invented by Microsoft.

 

1986

A high-temperature super-conductor invented by J. Georg Bednorz and Karl A. Muller.

Synthetic skin invented by G. Gregory Gallico, III.

Fuji introduced the disposable camera.

 

1987

The first 3-D video game invented.

Disposable contact lenses invented.

 

1988

Digital cellular phones invented.

The RU-486 (abortion pill) invented.

Doppler radar invented by Christian Andreas Doppler.

Prozac invented at the Eli Lilly Company by inventor Ray Fuller.

The first patent for a genetically engineered animal is issued to Harvard University researchers Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart.

Ralph Alessio and Fredrik Olsen received a patent for the Indiglo nightlight. The bluish green light is used to illuminate the entire face of a watch.

 

1989

High-definition television invented.

 

 

The 90s saw the invention of the internet and the rise of Microsoft. The 90s saw the invention of genetic engineering, as well as cloning, and stem cell research.

 

1990

The World Wide Web and Internet protocol (HTTP) and WWW language (HTML) created by Tim Berners-Lee.

 

1991

The digital answering machine invented.

 

1992

The smart pill invented.

 

1993

The pentium processor invented.

 

1994

HIV protease inhibitor invented.

 

1995

The Java computer language invented.

DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) invented.

 

1996

Web TV invented.

 

1997

The gas-powered fuel cell invented.

 

1998

Viagra invented.

 

1999

Scientists measure the fastest wind speed ever recorded on earth, 509 km/h(318 mph).

Tekno Bubbles patented.

 

Modern Inventions of 2000

The mystery of Ginger.

Environmentally friendly transformer fluid from vegetable oils invented by T.V. Oommen.

FluidSense infusion pump invented (automatic and standardized intravenous applicator).

 

2001

AbioCor artificial heart invented by Abiomed – the Abiocor represents groundbreaking medical miniaturization technology. Nuvaring birth control invented by Organon.

Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation.

Fuel cell bike invented by Aprilia.

Self-cleaning windows invented by PPG Industries.

On October 23, 2001 Apple Computers publicly announced their portable music digital player the iPod, created under project codename Dulcimer.

 

2002

Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson.

Phone tooth invented by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau.

Nano-tex – nanotechnology wearable fabrics invented by Nano-tex LLC.

Birth control patch invented by Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical.

Foveon Camera Chip invented by Richard Merrill.

Date Rape Drug Spotter invented by Francisco Guerra.

Solar Tower invented by Jorg Schlaich.

Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB.

ICOPOD invented by Sanford Ponder.

 

2003

Optical Camouflage System invented by Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami, and Naoki Kawakami

Toyota’s Hybrid Car

Ice Bike invented by Dan Hanebrink

New Toy Robots Max the robotic cat invented by Omron, LUCKY, THE ROVING ROBO-RAPTOR invented by Walt Disney Imagineering, and Sony builds Aibo a companion called Orio.

New Fabrics, Salmon Skin Leather invented by Claudia Escobar and Skini, and Luminex a glowing fabric invented by Luminex.

Java Log a log for your fireplace made from used coffee grinds and invented by Rod Sprules

Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency

The No-Contact Jacket invented by Adam Whiton and Yolita Nugent, protects the wearer by electric shocking any attackers.

 

2004

Adidas 1 are the thinking shoes with a built in microprocessor that decides how soft or firm support the wearer needs. Chosen by Popular Science magazine as the best recreation invention of 2004.

Translucent Concrete developed by Hungarian architect Aron Losonczi and called LitraCon and is based on a matrix of parallel optical glass fibers embedded into the concrete that can transmit light and color from the outside. However, this is not the only translucent concrete out there. Inventor Bill Price has been developing another variety.

Ka-on or Flower Sound are plants that play music invented by the Japanese based Let’s Corporation. Flowers bouquets will act as loudspeakers when placed in a special vase that has electronics hidden in the base.

Intel Express Chipsets – Grantsdale and Alderwood are the code names of Intel’s newest chips that will provide superior and inexpensive built-in sound and video capacities for the PC including the ability to do high definition video editing without additional computer cards.

SonoPrep invented by bioengineer Robert Langer, is a device that will deliver medication by sound waves rather than injection. According to the Sontra Medical Corporation, SonoPrep’s manufacturer: The small, battery-powered device applies low-frequency ultrasonic energy to the skin for 15 seconds. The ultrasound temporarily rearranges lipids in the skin, opening channels that let fluids be delivered or extracted. After about 24 hours, the skin returns to normal

 

2005

YouTube – the online video sharing and viewing community – was invented in 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim.

 

Sources: Various Web Site€™s

Why Positivity is So Essential in the Workplace

By: Dr. Marla Gottschalk

Industrial & Organizational Psychologist / Workplace Strategist

Most of us are familiar with the terms “economic capital” or “human capital”, but have you considered the notion of “psychological capital” and how it relates to your work life? Researchers studying the application of Positive Psychology to the workplace have carefully considered this idea – as a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a positive mindset can not only affect our attitudes toward work, but the outcomes which follow. Indeed, the “psychological capital” that we bring to the table, can have a significant impact upon work and career.

Recently we discussed, how the tenets of positive psychology might provide a guide to help us achieve greater levels of workplace happiness. Overall, the movement stresses the identification of what is “right” with our work lives – building on positive contributors (emphasizing our strengths, celebrating smaller successes, gratitude). Central to this theory is the mechanism by which we build our “psychological resources” and how we utilize this collected energy to digest and cope with our work lives.

Along this vein, researchers have identified a high-order construct, aptly named Psychological Capital (PsyCap). Psychological Capital is comprised of a number of key psychological resources that we bring to our work life experiences. In combination, we utilize these resources to meet the challenges of our daily work lives. (Referred to as “HERO”.)

The HERO resources:

Hope. A belief in the ability to persevere toward goals and find the methods or paths to reach them.
Efficacy. The confidence that one can put forth the effort to affect outcomes.
Resilience. The ability to bounce back in the face of adversity or failure.
Optimism. A generally positive view of work and the potential of success.
Of key importance, studies have established (Avey, et al., 2011) a clear positive relationship between PsyCap and a number desired workplace outcomes, including as job satisfaction, organizational commitment and psychological well-being. Moreover, the construct has been shown to be negatively correlated with negative organizational behaviors, including cynicism, anxiety, stress, and the intention to turnover.

Impacting levels of psychological capital appears to be the next imperative (information is emerging). On a promising note, PsyCap appears to be a “state like” quality and open to change. This is in contrast to traits that tend to be largely stable over time – such as the “Big 5” personality traits, of extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness. As a result, psychological capital can be developed and strengthened. Certainly, this has broad implications for key workplace attributes such as the quality of performance feedback, role design and leadership style.

Do you feel that focusing on PsyCap could enhance our work lives? How can we apply the concept wisely?

INCREDIBLE SHIPWRECKS AROUND THE WORLD

Incredible Shipwrecks Around The World  

Sunken ships have long held a special allure for young children, treasure hunters and archaeologists alike. UNESCO estimates there are three million shipwrecks lost in the oceans, with just a fraction having been discovered by explorers. Click through the slideshow to view the most impressive shipwrecks ever captured on film.

SS President Coolidge Hull

SS President Coolidge Hull

 At the time of its christening in 1931, the SS President Coolidge was the largest and finest vessel built by an American shipyard. Prior to World War II, the ship was operated by the American President Lines as a luxury liner providing trans-Pacific passage and commercial service. Shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the ship was converted for military use and could carry more than 5,000 troops.

SS President Coolidge

SS President Coolidge

 The SS President Coolidge hit underwater mines and sank off the coast of Vanuatu in the Pacific Ocean. All but two passengers survived the ordeal. Guns, cannons, Jeeps, chandeliers and a mosaic tile fountain can be found among the wreckage.

Sweepstakes

Sweepstakes

 Today the remains of the two-masted Sweepstakes can be found in Ontario’s Big Tub Harbor. The shallow depth of 20 feet and clear water make the vessel easily visible from the shore or aboard a boat. There are 22 shipwrecks throughout Fathom Five National Marine Park, where the Sweepstakes is located.

Sweepstakes

Sweepstakes

 The coal-toting schooner was damaged off Cove Island in August 1885 and was later towed to the head of Big Tub Harbour, located in the Fathom Five National Marine Park. The Sweepstakes was not repaired in time, causing it to sink in September 1885.

Titanic

Titanic  

Titanic, possibly the most talked-about shipwreck tragedy in history, set out from Southampton to New York on April 10, 1912 on its maiden voyage. Built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, the White Star Line steamer was renowned for its opulence, luxury, and presumed safety.

Titanic Railing

Titanic Railing

 The renowned ship sank in the early hours of April 15, 1912, a little more than four days after it set sail, when it collided with an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean. “The ship was believed to be unsinkable at the time she was lost and is considered to be one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history,” Stemm said. More than 1,500 people lost their lives.

Sea Tiger

Sea Tiger

 Originally a Chinese-owned vessel used to transport illegal immigrants, the Sea Tiger was confiscated in 1992 by the United States Coast Guard. The boat was later auctioned off to Voyager Submarines for a $1. Voyager spent more than $250,000 acquiring environmental and logistical approval from multiple government agencies in order to sink the ship for tourist use.

Lina

Lina

 Shipwrecked near the Croatian coast, Lina is one of the most well-preserved wrecks in the Adriatic. The steel merchant ship was used to transport timber from Rijeka to Sicily before it struck an underwater reef and sank in January 1914. The entire crew was saved. Today, Scuba divers can view cabins, two masts, upper deck and holes in the lower part of the boat where the hull struck the reef.

Oseberg Ship

Oseberg Ship

The Oseberg Burial Ship, a ninth-century royal burial ship, excavated on the Oslo Fjord in Norway in 1904, was largely intact because it had been buried in blue clay, a substance known for its preserving qualities. The burial chamber, which held the bodies of two women, was further sealed beneath a mound of sod, wrote Nigel Pickford, in “The Atlas of Shipwrecks & Treasure.” He said the find is important because the ship reflects Viking shipbuilding methods and styles from the early 800’s and is also “a unique work of art, with its elaborately carved stern and stern posts depicting an intricate maze of mythological beasts.”

SS Republic

SS Republic

 During a violent hurricane on October 25, 1865, the SS Republic a Civil War-era side-wheel steamship, got lost and sank on its way to New Orleans from New York. The passengers and crew escaped but a fortune in precious cargo–including a stunning variety of everyday wares essential to life in mid-19th century America–sank to the bottom of the Atlantic seabed. It was discovered in 2003 by Odyssey Marine Exploration, nearly 140 years later, approximately 100 miles off the Georgia Coast. The company recovered more than 51,000 American gold and silver coins and some 14,000 other artifacts from the wreck site.

Lusitania

Lusitania

In 1915, while the Lusitania sailed from New York to Liverpool, the ship was hit by a German torpedo and quickly sank off the coast of Ireland. The passenger ship was part of the Cunard line. About 1200 men, women and children perished, including more than one hundred Americans. The incident is thought to be instrumental in bringing the United States into World War I.

Whydah

Whydah

The Whydah, a pirate ship belonging to the English pirate “Black Sam” Bellamy, was lost on a stormy night in 1717 off the coast of Cape Cod. In 1984, a team led by underwater explorer Barry Clifford located the wreck. Many of the estimated 200,000 artifacts–including gold doubloons and silver pieces of eight–can be seen at The Whydah Museum in Provincetown, Mass., or at the “Real Pirates” traveling exhibit. Recovery work at the site continues.

Antikythera Ship

Antikythera Ship

 The Antikythera Ship, a Roman merchant ship was discovered in 1900 by sponge divers off the coast of Antikythera, a tiny Greek Island between Crete and mainland Greece. Salvage work, which was difficult and dangerous, yielded “Statue of a Youth,” a well preserved bronze sculpture submerged for nearly 2,000 years, and “Philosopher’s Head.” Though no photos of the shipwreck exist, objects such as this piece of a scientific mechanism have been salvaged for archaeological study.

Source: Forbes

Previous Older Entries