TECHNOLOGY OVER THE CENTURIES

Technology, science, and inventions have progressed at an accelerated rate during the hundred years of the 20th century, more so than any other century.

We began the 20th century with the infancy of airplanes, automobiles, and radio, when those inventions dazzled us with their novelty and wonder.

We end the 20th century with spaceships, computers, cell phones, and the wireless Internet all being technologies we can take for granted.

 

I900

The zeppelin invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

Charles Seeberger redesigned Jesse Reno’s escalator and invented the modern escalator.

 

1901

King Camp Gillette invents the double-edged safety razor.

The first radio receiver, successfully received a radio transmission.

Hubert Booth invents a compact and modern vacuum cleaner.

 

1902

Willis Carrier invents the air conditioner.

The lie detector or polygraph machine is invented by James Mackenzie.

George Claude invented neon light.

 

1903

Edward Binney and Harold Smith co-invent crayons.

Bottle-making machinery invented by Michael J. Owens.

The Wright brothers invent the first gas motored and manned airplane.

Mary Anderson invents windshield wipers.

William Coolidge invents ductile tungsten used in lightbulbs.

 

1904

Teabags invented by Thomas Suillivan.

Benjamin Holt invents a tractor.

John A Fleming invents a vacuum diode or Fleming valve.

 

1905

Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity and made famous the equation, E = mc2.

invents Cornflakes.

Lewis Nixon inven

1906

William Kellogg ts the first sonar like device.

Lee Deforest invents electronic amplifying tube (triode).

 

1907

Leo Baekeland invents the first synthetic plastic called Bakelite.

Color photography invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.

The very first piloted helicopter was invented by Paul Cornu.

 

1908

The gyrocompass invented by Elmer A. Sperry.

Cellophane invented by Jacques E. Brandenberger.

Model T first sold.

J W Geiger and W Müller invent the geiger counter.

Fritz Haber invents the Haber Process for making artificial nitrates.

1909

Instant coffee invented by G. Washington.

 

1910

Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.

Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public on December 11, 1910, in Paris.

 

1911

Charles Franklin Kettering invents the first automobile electrical ignition system.

 

1912

Motorized movie cameras invented, replaced hand-cranked cameras.

The first tank patented by Australian inventor De La Mole.

Clarence Crane created Life Savers candy in 1912.

 

1913

The crossword puzzle invented by Arthur Wynne.

The Merck Chemical Company patented, what is now know as, ecstasy.

Mary Phelps Jacob invents the bra.

Gideon Sundback invented the modern zipper.

 

1914

Garrett A. Morgan invents the Morgan gas mask.

 

 1915

Eugene Sullivan and William Taylor co-invented Pyrex in New York City.

 

1916

Radio tuners invented, that received different stations.

Stainless steel invented by Henry Brearly.

 

1917

Gideon Sundback patented the modern zipper (not the first zipper).

 

1918

The superheterodyne radio circuit invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong. Today, every radio or television set uses this invention.

Charles Jung invented fortune cookies.

 

1919

The pop-up toaster invented by Charles Strite.

Short-wave radio invented.

The flip-flop circuit invented.

The arc welder invented.

 

1920

The tommy gun patented by John T Thompson.

The Band-Aid (pronounced ‘ban-‘dade) invented by Earle Dickson.

 

 1921

Artificial life begins — the first robot built.

John Larson invented the lie detector.

 

1922

Insulin invented by Sir Frederick Grant Banting.

The first 3-D movie (spectacles with one red and one green lens) is released.

 

1923

Garrett A. Morgan invents a traffic signal.

The television or iconoscope (cathode-ray tube) invented by Vladimir Kosma Zworykin.

John Harwood invented the self-winding watch.

Clarence Birdseye invents frozen food.

 

1924

The dynamic loudspeaker invented by Rice and Kellogg.

Notebooks with spiral bindings invented.

 

1925

The mechanical television a precursor to the modern television, invented by John Logie Baird.

 

1926

Robert H. Goddard invents liquid-fueled rockets.

 

 1927

Eduard Haas III invents PEZ candy.

JWA Morrison invents the first quartz crystal watch.

Philo Taylor Farnsworth invents a complete electronic TV system.

Technicolor invented.

Erik Rotheim patents an aerosol can.

Warren Marrison developed the first quartz clock.

Philip Drinker invents the iron lung.

 

1928

Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

Bubble gum invented by Walter E. Diemer.

Jacob Schick patented the electric shaver.

 

1929

American, Paul Galvin invents the car radio.

Yo-Yo re-invented as an American fad.

 

1930

Scotch tape patented by 3M engineer, Richard G. Drew.

The frozen food process patented by Clarence Birdseye.

Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents neoprene.

The “differential analyzer”, or analog computer invented by Vannevar Bush at MIT in Boston.

Frank Whittle and Dr Hans von Ohain both invent a jet engine.

 

1931

Harold Edgerton invented stop-action photography.

Germans Max Knott and Ernst Ruska co-invent the electron microscope.

 

1932

Polaroid photography invented by Edwin Herbert Land.

The zoom lens and the light meter invented.

Carl C. Magee invents the first parking meter.

Karl Jansky invents the radio telescope.

 

1933

Frequency modulation (FM radio) invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong.

Stereo records invented.

Richard M. Hollingshead builds a prototype drive-in movie theater in his driveway.

 

1934

Englishmen, Percy Shaw invents cat eyes or roads reflectors.

Charles Darrow claims he invented the game Monopoly.

Joseph Begun invents the first tape recorder for broadcasting – first magnetic recording.

 

1935

Wallace Carothers and DuPont Labs invents nylon ( polymer 6.6.)

The first canned beer made.

Robert Watson-Watt patented radar.

 

1936

Bell Labs invents the voice recognition machine.

Samuel Colt patents the Colt revolver.

 

1937

Chester F. Carlson invents the photocopier.

The first jet engine is built.

 

1938

The ballpoint pen invented by Ladislo Biro.

Strobe lighting invented.

LSD was synthesized on November 16, 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann of Sandoz Laboratories.

Roy J. Plunkett invented tetrafluoroethylene polymers or Teflon.

Nescafe or freeze-dried coffee invented.

The first working turboprop engine.

 

1939

Igor Sikorsky invents the first successful helicopter.

The electron microscope invented.

 

1940

Dr William Reich invents the orgone accumulator.

Peter Goldmark invents modern color television system.

Karl Pabst invents the jeep.

 

1941

Konrad Zuse’s Z3, the first computer controlled by software.

Aerosol spray cans invented by American inventors, Lyle David Goodloe and W.N. Sullivan.

Enrico Fermi invents the neutronic reactor.

 

1942

John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry built the first electronic digital computer.

Mueller designs a turboprop engine.

 

1943

Synthetic rubber invented.

Richard James invents the slinky.

James Wright invent silly putty.

Swiss chemist, Albert Hofmann discovered the hallucinogenic properties of LSD.

Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau invent the aqualung.

 

1944

The kidney dialysis machine invented by Willem Kolff.

Synthetic cortisone invented by Percy Lavon Julian.

 

1945

Vannevar Bush proposes hypertext.

The atomic bomb invented.

 

 1946

The microwave oven invented by Percy Spencer.

 

1947

British/Hungarian scientist, Dennis Gabor, developed the theory of holography.

Mobile phones first invented. Although cell phones were not sold commercially until 1983.

Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invent the transistor.

Earl Silas Tupper patented the Tupperware seal.

 

1948

The Frisbee ® invented by Walter Frederick Morrison and Warren Franscioni.

Velcro ® invented by George de Mestral.

Robert Hope-Jones invented the Wurlitzer jukebox.

 

1949

Cake mix invented.

 

The 50s have always been described as a conservative period socially, however, advancements in technology were about to change all that. During the 50s, television became the dominant media. While television had been invented many years previous, the 50s saw nearly every family buying a television set, and nearly everyone watching television for longer and longer periods of time. Television broadcasts became our number one source of news, information, and entertainment during the 50s. Live news broadcasts were now possible coast to coast, and this has changed our world forever.

 

1950

The first credit card (Diners) invented by Ralph Schneider.

 

1951

Super glue invented.

Power steering invented by Francis W. Davis.

Charles Ginsburg invented the first video tape recorder (VTR).

 

1952

The first patent for bar code issued to inventors Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver.

The first diet soft drink sold.

Edward Teller and team build the hydrogen bomb.

 

1953

Radial tires invented.

The first musical synthesizer invented by RCA.

David Warren invented the black box – flight recorder.

Transistor radio invented by Texas Instruments.

 

1954

Oral contraceptives invented – the pill.

The first nonstick teflon pan produced.

The solar cell invented by Chaplin, Fuller and Pearson.

Ray Kroc started McDonalds.

 

1955

Tetracycline invented.

Optic fiber invented.

 

1956

The first computer hard disk used.

The hovercraft invented by Christopher Cockerell.

Bette Nesmith Graham invented “Mistake Out,” later renamed Liquid Paper, to paint over mistakes made with a typewriter.

 

1957

Fortran (computer language) invented.

 

1958

The computer modem invented.

Gordon Gould invents the laser.

The Hula Hoop invented by Richard Knerr and Arthur “Spud” Melin.

The integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.

 

1959

The internal pacemaker invented by Wilson Greatbatch.

Barbie Doll invented.

Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce both invent the microchip.

 

 

The 60s have been described by historians as the ten years having the most significant changes in history. By the end of the 60s humanity had entered the spaceage by putting a man on the moon. The 60s were influenced by the youth of the post-war baby boom – a generation with a fondness for change and far-out gadgets.

 

1960

The halogen lamp invented.

 

1961

Valium invented.

The nondairy creamer invented.

 

1962

The audio cassette invented.

The fiber-tip pen invented by Yukio Horie.

Spacewar, the first computer video game invented.

Dow Corp invents silicone breast implants.

 

1963

The video disk invented.

 

1964

Acrylic paint invented.

Permanent-press fabric invented.

BASIC (an early computer language) is invented by John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz.

 

1965

Astroturf invented.

Soft contact lenses invented.

NutraSweet invented.

The compact disk invented by James Russell.

Kevlar invented by Stephanie Louise Kwolek.

 

1966

Electronic Fuel injection for cars invented.

 

1967

The first handheld calculator invented.

 

1968

The computer mouse invented by Douglas Engelbart.

The first computer with integrated circuits made.

Robert Dennard invented RAM (random access memory).

 

1969

The arpanet (first internet) invented.

The artificial heart invented.

The ATM invented.

The bar-code scanner is invented.

 

 

The 70s began the age of the practical computer made possible by the invention of the floppy disk and the microprocessor that occurred during the 70s.

 

1970

The daisy-wheel printer invented.

The floppy disk invented by Alan Shugart.

 

1971

The dot-matrix printer invented.

The food processor invented.

The liquid-crystal display (LCD) invented by James Fergason.

The microprocessor invented by Faggin, Hoff and Mazor.

VCR or videocassette invented.

 

1972

The word processor invented.

Pong first video game invented by Nolan Bushnell.

Hacky Sack invented by John Stalberger and Mike Marshall.

 

1973

Gene splicing invented.

The ethernet (local computer network) invented by Robert Metcalfe and Xerox.

Bic invents the disposable lighter.

 

1974

The post-it notes invented by Arthur Fry.

Giorgio Fischer, a gynecologist from Rome, Italy, invents liposuction.

 

1975

The laser printer invented.

The push-through tab on a drink can invented.

 

1976

The ink-jet printer invented.

 

1977

Magnetic resonance imaging invented by Raymond V. Damadian.

 

1978

Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston invented the VisiCalc spreadsheet.

The artificial heart Jarvik-7 invented by Robert K. Jarvik.

 

1979

Cell phones invented.

Cray supercomputer invented by Seymour Cray.

Walkman invented.

Scott Olson invents roller blades.

 

 

Many of the most popular consumer products still around today were invented in the 80s for example: cell phones and home computers.

The 80s saw the rise of the multi-national corporations.

 

1980

The hepatitis-B vaccine invented.

 

1981

MS-DOS invented.

The first IBM-PC invented.

The scanning tunneling microscope invented by Gerd Karl Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer.

 

1982

Human growth hormone genetically engineered.

 

1983

The Apple Lisa invented.

Soft bifocal contact lens invented.

First Cabbage Patch Kids sold.

Programmer Jaron Lanier first coins the term “virtual reality”.

 

1984

The CD-ROM invented.

The Apple Macintosh invented.

 

1985

Windows program invented by Microsoft.

 

1986

A high-temperature super-conductor invented by J. Georg Bednorz and Karl A. Muller.

Synthetic skin invented by G. Gregory Gallico, III.

Fuji introduced the disposable camera.

 

1987

The first 3-D video game invented.

Disposable contact lenses invented.

 

1988

Digital cellular phones invented.

The RU-486 (abortion pill) invented.

Doppler radar invented by Christian Andreas Doppler.

Prozac invented at the Eli Lilly Company by inventor Ray Fuller.

The first patent for a genetically engineered animal is issued to Harvard University researchers Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart.

Ralph Alessio and Fredrik Olsen received a patent for the Indiglo nightlight. The bluish green light is used to illuminate the entire face of a watch.

 

1989

High-definition television invented.

 

 

The 90s saw the invention of the internet and the rise of Microsoft. The 90s saw the invention of genetic engineering, as well as cloning, and stem cell research.

 

1990

The World Wide Web and Internet protocol (HTTP) and WWW language (HTML) created by Tim Berners-Lee.

 

1991

The digital answering machine invented.

 

1992

The smart pill invented.

 

1993

The pentium processor invented.

 

1994

HIV protease inhibitor invented.

 

1995

The Java computer language invented.

DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) invented.

 

1996

Web TV invented.

 

1997

The gas-powered fuel cell invented.

 

1998

Viagra invented.

 

1999

Scientists measure the fastest wind speed ever recorded on earth, 509 km/h(318 mph).

Tekno Bubbles patented.

 

Modern Inventions of 2000

The mystery of Ginger.

Environmentally friendly transformer fluid from vegetable oils invented by T.V. Oommen.

FluidSense infusion pump invented (automatic and standardized intravenous applicator).

 

2001

AbioCor artificial heart invented by Abiomed – the Abiocor represents groundbreaking medical miniaturization technology. Nuvaring birth control invented by Organon.

Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation.

Fuel cell bike invented by Aprilia.

Self-cleaning windows invented by PPG Industries.

On October 23, 2001 Apple Computers publicly announced their portable music digital player the iPod, created under project codename Dulcimer.

 

2002

Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson.

Phone tooth invented by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau.

Nano-tex – nanotechnology wearable fabrics invented by Nano-tex LLC.

Birth control patch invented by Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical.

Foveon Camera Chip invented by Richard Merrill.

Date Rape Drug Spotter invented by Francisco Guerra.

Solar Tower invented by Jorg Schlaich.

Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB.

ICOPOD invented by Sanford Ponder.

 

2003

Optical Camouflage System invented by Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami, and Naoki Kawakami

Toyota’s Hybrid Car

Ice Bike invented by Dan Hanebrink

New Toy Robots Max the robotic cat invented by Omron, LUCKY, THE ROVING ROBO-RAPTOR invented by Walt Disney Imagineering, and Sony builds Aibo a companion called Orio.

New Fabrics, Salmon Skin Leather invented by Claudia Escobar and Skini, and Luminex a glowing fabric invented by Luminex.

Java Log a log for your fireplace made from used coffee grinds and invented by Rod Sprules

Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency

The No-Contact Jacket invented by Adam Whiton and Yolita Nugent, protects the wearer by electric shocking any attackers.

 

2004

Adidas 1 are the thinking shoes with a built in microprocessor that decides how soft or firm support the wearer needs. Chosen by Popular Science magazine as the best recreation invention of 2004.

Translucent Concrete developed by Hungarian architect Aron Losonczi and called LitraCon and is based on a matrix of parallel optical glass fibers embedded into the concrete that can transmit light and color from the outside. However, this is not the only translucent concrete out there. Inventor Bill Price has been developing another variety.

Ka-on or Flower Sound are plants that play music invented by the Japanese based Let’s Corporation. Flowers bouquets will act as loudspeakers when placed in a special vase that has electronics hidden in the base.

Intel Express Chipsets – Grantsdale and Alderwood are the code names of Intel’s newest chips that will provide superior and inexpensive built-in sound and video capacities for the PC including the ability to do high definition video editing without additional computer cards.

SonoPrep invented by bioengineer Robert Langer, is a device that will deliver medication by sound waves rather than injection. According to the Sontra Medical Corporation, SonoPrep’s manufacturer: The small, battery-powered device applies low-frequency ultrasonic energy to the skin for 15 seconds. The ultrasound temporarily rearranges lipids in the skin, opening channels that let fluids be delivered or extracted. After about 24 hours, the skin returns to normal

 

2005

YouTube – the online video sharing and viewing community – was invented in 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim.

 

Sources: Various Web Site€™s

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WHAT CHEF’S DO WHEN THEY’RE BOARD

INCREDIBLE SHIPWRECKS AROUND THE WORLD

Incredible Shipwrecks Around The World  

Sunken ships have long held a special allure for young children, treasure hunters and archaeologists alike. UNESCO estimates there are three million shipwrecks lost in the oceans, with just a fraction having been discovered by explorers. Click through the slideshow to view the most impressive shipwrecks ever captured on film.

SS President Coolidge Hull

SS President Coolidge Hull

 At the time of its christening in 1931, the SS President Coolidge was the largest and finest vessel built by an American shipyard. Prior to World War II, the ship was operated by the American President Lines as a luxury liner providing trans-Pacific passage and commercial service. Shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the ship was converted for military use and could carry more than 5,000 troops.

SS President Coolidge

SS President Coolidge

 The SS President Coolidge hit underwater mines and sank off the coast of Vanuatu in the Pacific Ocean. All but two passengers survived the ordeal. Guns, cannons, Jeeps, chandeliers and a mosaic tile fountain can be found among the wreckage.

Sweepstakes

Sweepstakes

 Today the remains of the two-masted Sweepstakes can be found in Ontario’s Big Tub Harbor. The shallow depth of 20 feet and clear water make the vessel easily visible from the shore or aboard a boat. There are 22 shipwrecks throughout Fathom Five National Marine Park, where the Sweepstakes is located.

Sweepstakes

Sweepstakes

 The coal-toting schooner was damaged off Cove Island in August 1885 and was later towed to the head of Big Tub Harbour, located in the Fathom Five National Marine Park. The Sweepstakes was not repaired in time, causing it to sink in September 1885.

Titanic

Titanic  

Titanic, possibly the most talked-about shipwreck tragedy in history, set out from Southampton to New York on April 10, 1912 on its maiden voyage. Built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, the White Star Line steamer was renowned for its opulence, luxury, and presumed safety.

Titanic Railing

Titanic Railing

 The renowned ship sank in the early hours of April 15, 1912, a little more than four days after it set sail, when it collided with an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean. “The ship was believed to be unsinkable at the time she was lost and is considered to be one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history,” Stemm said. More than 1,500 people lost their lives.

Sea Tiger

Sea Tiger

 Originally a Chinese-owned vessel used to transport illegal immigrants, the Sea Tiger was confiscated in 1992 by the United States Coast Guard. The boat was later auctioned off to Voyager Submarines for a $1. Voyager spent more than $250,000 acquiring environmental and logistical approval from multiple government agencies in order to sink the ship for tourist use.

Lina

Lina

 Shipwrecked near the Croatian coast, Lina is one of the most well-preserved wrecks in the Adriatic. The steel merchant ship was used to transport timber from Rijeka to Sicily before it struck an underwater reef and sank in January 1914. The entire crew was saved. Today, Scuba divers can view cabins, two masts, upper deck and holes in the lower part of the boat where the hull struck the reef.

Oseberg Ship

Oseberg Ship

The Oseberg Burial Ship, a ninth-century royal burial ship, excavated on the Oslo Fjord in Norway in 1904, was largely intact because it had been buried in blue clay, a substance known for its preserving qualities. The burial chamber, which held the bodies of two women, was further sealed beneath a mound of sod, wrote Nigel Pickford, in “The Atlas of Shipwrecks & Treasure.” He said the find is important because the ship reflects Viking shipbuilding methods and styles from the early 800’s and is also “a unique work of art, with its elaborately carved stern and stern posts depicting an intricate maze of mythological beasts.”

SS Republic

SS Republic

 During a violent hurricane on October 25, 1865, the SS Republic a Civil War-era side-wheel steamship, got lost and sank on its way to New Orleans from New York. The passengers and crew escaped but a fortune in precious cargo–including a stunning variety of everyday wares essential to life in mid-19th century America–sank to the bottom of the Atlantic seabed. It was discovered in 2003 by Odyssey Marine Exploration, nearly 140 years later, approximately 100 miles off the Georgia Coast. The company recovered more than 51,000 American gold and silver coins and some 14,000 other artifacts from the wreck site.

Lusitania

Lusitania

In 1915, while the Lusitania sailed from New York to Liverpool, the ship was hit by a German torpedo and quickly sank off the coast of Ireland. The passenger ship was part of the Cunard line. About 1200 men, women and children perished, including more than one hundred Americans. The incident is thought to be instrumental in bringing the United States into World War I.

Whydah

Whydah

The Whydah, a pirate ship belonging to the English pirate “Black Sam” Bellamy, was lost on a stormy night in 1717 off the coast of Cape Cod. In 1984, a team led by underwater explorer Barry Clifford located the wreck. Many of the estimated 200,000 artifacts–including gold doubloons and silver pieces of eight–can be seen at The Whydah Museum in Provincetown, Mass., or at the “Real Pirates” traveling exhibit. Recovery work at the site continues.

Antikythera Ship

Antikythera Ship

 The Antikythera Ship, a Roman merchant ship was discovered in 1900 by sponge divers off the coast of Antikythera, a tiny Greek Island between Crete and mainland Greece. Salvage work, which was difficult and dangerous, yielded “Statue of a Youth,” a well preserved bronze sculpture submerged for nearly 2,000 years, and “Philosopher’s Head.” Though no photos of the shipwreck exist, objects such as this piece of a scientific mechanism have been salvaged for archaeological study.

Source: Forbes

Our wonderful planet Earth

  •  We all know that earth is a sphere, three-fourths of it is covered with water; it is the only planet in the universe which is known to have life. We have grown up reading these facts in our schools and they are no longer interesting for us. But there are a number of other amazing realities about our planet that we do not know.
  • What are they? Have a look.
  • Rocks on earth can grow and float.
  • Moon was much closer to earth a billion years ago.
  • It took 20 days to make a month and days were just 18 hours long.
  • Moon is moving away from Earth at the rate of 1.6 inches a year.
  • Earth is gradually slowing down. Every few years, an extra second is added to make up for lost time.
  • Earth’s inside is fluid and is moving the same way as tornados and hurricanes.
  • Our planet is more than 4.5 billion years old, just a shade younger than the Sun.
  • On an average over a hundred lightening strikes occur worldwide every second.
  • The Antarctic Ice Sheet holds nearly 90 percent of the world’s ice and 70 percent of its fresh water. If the entire ice sheet were to melt, sea level would rise by nearly 220 feet, or the height of a 20-story building.
  • Mt. Cotopaxi in Ecuador supports the only glacier on the equator.
  • The creosote bush, which grows in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts, has been shown by radiocarbon dating to have lived since the birth of Christ.
  • About 400 billion gallons of water is used worldwide everyday.
  • Earth is the only planet in the Solar System not to be named after a mythical God.
  • From a distance in space, Earth seems to be the brightest of the 8 planets. This is because large amount of sunlight is reflected by the water on the planet.
  • Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.
  • El Azizia (Libya) is the hottest place on Earth, while Vostok (Antarctica) is the coldest.
  • The Atlantic Ocean is the saltiest of Earth’s major oceans.
  • Hawaii is moving towards Japan at the speed of 10 cm a year.
  • The Persian Gulf is the warmest sea. In the summer its temperature reaches 35.6 degrees centigrade.
  • Louisiana loses about 30 square miles (78 square kilometers) of land each year to coastal erosion, hurricanes, other natural and human causes and a thing called subsidence, which means sinking.
  • The world’s deadliest recorded earthquake occurred in 1557 in central China. More than 830,000 people were killed.
  • About 540 volcanoes on land are known to have erupted in the past. 20-30 volcanoes erupt yearly, but mostly from under the sea.
  • Sunlight can penetrate clean ocean water to a depth of 240 feet.
  • Antarctica is the highest, driest, and coldest continent on Earth.
  • The blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, is the largest known animal ever to have lived on sea or land.
  • The Peregrine Falcon around 200mph (320 km/h) is the fastest bird on the planet.
  • Water-meal or Wolffia globosa is the smallest flower in the world, it contains some 38 species of the smallest and simplest flowering plants.
  • The largest eggs in the world are laid by a shark.
  • A huge underground river runs underneath the Nile, with six times more water than the river above.
  • 80% of all life lives under the under the ocean’s surface.
  • 2 million pounds of space dust reaches Earth’s surface each year. Scientists think that this dust carries space microbes that give us flu.
  • Astronomers know that over the next few billion years, the Sun will swell to such an extent that it will envelop Earth.
  • So global warming is to occur anyways!

http://zeenews.india.com/EarthDay/story.aspx?aid=617762

AMAZING AMAZON RAINFOREST

Rainforest Dawn

Rainforest Dawn

 

Amazon Flower

Amazon Flower

author: jitsen.chang

 

People of Amazon

People of Amazon

author: cifor

 

Palm Tanager in the Amazon

Palm Tanager in the Amazon

author: ironpaw

 

The Soul of the Amazon

The Soul of the Amazon

author: Carlos Henrique Reinesch

 

Man On The Amazon

Man On The Amazon

author: Joseph A Ferris

 

Amazon Morning

Amazon Morning

author: andy mumford

 

Black-crowned Night-Heron

Black-crowned Night-Heron

author: bayucca

 

Amazon River

Amazon River

author: Frida Kalbakk

 

Toucan

Toucan

author: champivet

 

Anaconda

Anaconda

author: trinhiro

 

Squirrel Monkey

Squirrel Monkey

author: jitsen chang

 

Laguna

Laguna

author: pierre pouliquin

 

Masked Crimson Tanager

Masked Crimson Tanager

author: Billtacular

 

Capped Heron

Capped Heron

author: Billtacular

 

Children of Rio Amazonas

Children of Rio Amazonas

author: calmcolors

 

People of Amazon

People of Amazon

author: cifor

 

Sloth

Sloth

author: neilhooting

 

Giant Water Lily

Giant Water Lily

author: balsa

 

The Amazon Rainforest, also known as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America.

More than half of the forest is contained within Brazil, the rest of it in Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, covering five and a half million square kilometers, or 1.4 billion acres.

The Amazon represents over half of the planet’s remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. The diversity of plant species is the highest on Earth. One in ten known species in the world lives in the Amazon Rainforest.

If we want to save our planet, we have to preserve the rainforest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Most Famous Diamonds in the World

The most famous diamonds in the world are not only beautiful and very expensive, but also full of both history and mystery. There are many such diamonds in the world. Their different colors, sizes and stories make them all interesting and unique.  Here is  the 10 most famous diamonds in the world.

1. The Hope Diamond

hope diamond

The Hope Diamond is not only one of the most famous gems in the world, but it is also one of the largest blue diamonds (4th largest). It’s physical value might be estimated but it’s historical importance is priceless. It is so old that no one knows exactly when it was discovered. However, it already had an owner in 1668, in the person of an Indian slave who claimed that the 112 carats stone (which he believed to be a sapphire) came from the eye of an idol. Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a traveler and a gem merchant bought it and sold it afterwards to King Louis XIV of France. Its price today is estimated at $250 million. The legend says that this diamond was cursed by the Hindu priests of the temple from where it was stolen.

2. The Golden Jubilee

golden jubilee diamond

The Golden Jubilee is holding the title of the world’s largest faceted diamond in the world, measuring 545,67 carats. It was discovered in 1985, in the Premier mine of South Africa. At first, it was considered an ugly brown diamond. Gabriel Tolkowsky received the diamond, which was supposed to be used at testing some new tools and cutting methods. The result astonished everyone. It turned out that the “Unnamed Brown” was actually a very beautiful yellow-brown diamond. It remained unnamed until it was presented to the king of Thailand in 1997, for the 50th anniversary of his coronation (thus, its name).

3. The Cullinan I

cullinan diamond

One of the most famous diamonds in the world, Cullingam I was justly considered the largest diamond in the world up to the discovery of the Golden Jubilee. Also known as “The star of Africa”, the pear-shaped stone is the largest of the 9 diamonds cut from the largest rough diamond ever, the Cullinan diamond(3106,75 carats). Currently, it is the head of St. Edward’s scepter, one of the British Crown Jewels but it can be removed and worn as a brooch.

4. The Idol’s Eye

idol's eye

The idol’s eye is one of the most mysterious diamonds in the world. Its entire history is unknown; we have no idea where it came from, when it was discovered or who owned it. The only clue is its name, “The Idol’s Eye”. It appeared in a note, at Christie’s when it was described as a flawless large diamond. It was bought by an anonymous buyer and disappeared again for some years. Its owners changed several times afterwards and was bought in 1979 by Mr. Laurence Graff, who sold it again in 1983, to an anonymous buyer who is believed to own the diamond today.

5. The Spirit of de Grisogono

spirit de grisogono

This is one of the famous diamonds in the world. It is also known as the largest cut black diamond, and it measures 312, 24carats. This beautiful diamond was named after the Swiss jeweler who cut it, using the old Mogul style. The result was the jewel you see in the picture and it is the work of an entire year. Currently, it is owned by a private client, who must be a very fortunate person.

6. Koh-I-Noor /Mountain of light

koh i noor

Apparently, this is one of the oldest diamonds known to man. According to the legend, this diamond is more than 2000 years old, from before the birth of Christ. However, a much more documented hypothesis is that it was discovered in the early 1300s. The earliest recorded mention of the diamond is in the memories of Babur (Baburnama), the first Mogul ruler of India. It then passed through many hands and its long, complex history cannot be told here. It suffices to say that the diamond arrived to England in the 19th century and entered the possession of Queen Victoria. Not satisfied with its cutting, which caused it to shine less than it should have, the queen had it recut, which meant a loss of weight of almost 43%. It was then set in the queen’s crown,in frontal position. India did not give up one of its most precious gems easily. The Indian government continued to ask the return of the diamond, with no success.

7. The Orlov

orlov

The Orlov is one of the most intriguing diamonds in the world. It has a blurry past and it is said that it was stolen from an idol, where the stone stood as one of the eyes of the statue. However, many questions remain: First, if this is true, what happened to the other eye? Could it have been the above mentioned Koh-i-Noor? Another theory is that the Orlov diamond is actually the legendary stone called the Great Mogul, which was only described by Jean Baptiste Tavernier and it was lost forever centuries ago. Whatever the truth, The Orlov diamond is now in the possession of the Russian government and it is set in the Imperial scepter. It is estimated at 189 carats but its historical value cannot be priced.

8. The Florentine

florentine

The Florentine is an enigmatic diamond which is believed to have a light yellow color, with a green overtone and an estimated 137 carats. Its known history starts with the duke of Burgundy in the 15th century. Apparently, he died in battle while wearing the diamond. The stone was stolen from him by a peasant who sold it for a florin, because he thought it was mere glass. It then changed owners several times, for small amounts of money. In the 17th century, we find the Florentine in the possession of the Medici familly. When the last Medici died, the diamond arrived in Vienna, and became one of the Habsburg Crown Jewels. After the World War I, it was stolen and never found again, though a particular diamond was believed to be the lost one, because of its similarities with the Florentine.

9. The Heart of Eternity

heart of eternity

The diamond which bears such a romantic name is measuring 27,64 carats . It was found in a mine in South Africa and it has a “fancy vivid blue color”, making it an extremely rare diamond. Apparently, the blue color is given by impurities of boron and most of the gems are not entirely blue. The stone was an impressive 777 carats when found and caused a rush among diggers, who started to dig like crazy, trying to find another one. However, experts estimate that such a discovery is not likely to occur in the next several hundred years.

10. The Moussaieff Red

moussaieff red diamond

This gem is of an amazing beauty and it is estimated at 5, 11 carats. It has a triangular brilliant cut (it features numerous facets, which offer it great brilliance). Its amazing color was established to be “fancy red” by the Gemological Institute of America. One of the most famous diamonds in the world, the Moussaieff Red was first discovered by a Brazilian digger in the Abaetezinho River in 1990 and it is believed to have had 13.9 carats.

Source:Smashing Tops

WHY

Why does water not calm the tongue after eating hot spicy food?
The spices in most of the hot foods that we eat are oily, and, like your elementary school science teacher taught you, oil and water don’t mix. In this case, the water just rolls over the oily spices.

What can you do to calm your aching tongue? Eat bread. The bread will absorb the oily spices. A second solution is to drink milk. Milk contains a substance called “casein” which will bind to the spices and carry them away. Alcohol also dissolves oily spices.

Why does wet fabric appear darker?

When fabric gets wet, light coming towards it refracts within the water, dispersing the light. In addition, the surface of the water causes incoherent light scattering. The combination of these two effects causes less light to reflect to your eyes and makes the wet fabric appear darker.

Why is blue for boys and pink for girls?
In ancient times, it was believed that certain colors could combat the evil spirits that lingered over nurseries. Because blue was associated with the heavenly spirits, boys were clothed in that color, boys then being considered the most valuable resource to parents. Although baby girls did not have a color associated with them, they were mostly clothed in black. It was only in the Middle Ages when pink became associated with baby girls.

Why do people kiss under the mistletoe at Christmas?
In ancient myth, when the son of the Norse goddess Frigga, Baldr, was killed by an arrow made of mistletoe and then brought back to life, she blessed the mistletoe and bestowed a kiss on all who passed beneath it. In the 18th century, the legend was adopted as a promise to marry. At Christmas a lady standing under a mistletoe may not refuse a kiss. If she does, she cannot expect to marry the following year. So it is told.

Why are there bunnies and eggs at Easter?
The ancient Anglo-Saxons celebrated the return of spring with a carnival commemorating their goddess of offspring and of springtime, Eostre. The word carnival possibly originated from the Latin ‘carne vale’ meaning “flesh, farewell” or “meat, farewell.” The offerings were rabbits and colored eggs, bidding an end to winter.
As it happened, the pagan festival of Eostre occurred at the same time of year as the Christian observance of the Resurrection of Christ and it didn’t take the Christian missionaries long to convert the Anglo-Saxons when they encountered them in the second century. The offering of rabbits and eggs eventually became the Easter bunny and Easter eggs.

If blood is red, why are veins blue?
Blood is bright red in its oxygenated form and a dark red in deoxygenated form. In simpler terms, it is bright red when it leaves the lungs full of oxygen and dark red when it returns to the lungs for a refill. Veins appear blue because light penetrating the skin is absorbed and reflected in high energy wavelengths back to the eye. Higher energy wavelengths are blue.

Why did Columbus and others try to sail around the world?
You probably know that people native to the Americas are called “Indians” because early explorers like Christopher Columbus thought they had come across the Indian spice islands. Traders were forced to sail westward after the spice route to the East by land was blocked for Europeans by Muslim uprisings.

Why is it called a “loo?”
The British word for toilet, “loo”, derives from the French “garde a l’eau!” In medieval Europe people had little conception of hygiene and threw the contents of their chamber pots out the window into the street below. In France the practice was preceded by “garde a l’eau!” (“watch out for the water!”). In England, this phrase was Anglicized, first to “gardy-loo!”, then just “loo”, and eventually came to mean the toilet/lavatory itself. The American word for toilet, “john”, is called after the John Harington who in 1596 invented an indoor water closet for Queen Elizabeth I.

Why is the sky blue?
When sunlight travels through the atmosphere, it collides with gas molecules. These molecules scatter the light. The shorter the wavelength of light, the more it is scattered by the atmosphere. Because it has a shorter wavelength than the other colors, blue light is scattered more, ten times more than red light, for instance. That is why the sky is blue.
Why does the setting sun look reddish orange? When the sun is on the horizon, its light takes a longer path through the atmosphere to reach your eyes than when the sun is directly overhead. By the time the light of the setting sun reaches your eyes, most of the blue light has been scattered out. The light you finally see is reddish orange, the color of white light minus blue.

Why do onions make you cry?
Onions, like other plants, are made of cells. The cells are divided into two sections separated by a membrane. One side of the membrane contains an enzyme which helps chemical processes occur in your body. The other side of the membrane contains molecules that contain sulfur. When you cut an onion, the contents on each side of the membrane mix and cause a chemical reaction. This reaction produces molecules such as ethylsufine which make your eyes water.
To prevent crying when you cut an onion, cut it under a running tap of cold water. The sulfur compounds dissolve in water and are rinsed down the sink before they reach your eyes. You can also put the onion in the freezer for ten minutes before you cut it. Cold temperatures slow down the reaction between the enzyme and the sulfur compounds so fewer of the burning molecules will reach your eyes.

Why do you get hiccups?
Hiccups happen when the diaphragm, the muscle that controls our breathing, becomes irritated and start to spasm and contract uncontrollably. With each contraction, air is pulled into the lungs very quickly, passes through the voice box, and then the epiglottis closes behind the rush of air, shaking the vocal chords, causing the “hic” sound. The irritation can be caused by rapid eating, emotional stress and even some diseases. The best cure? Breathing into a paper bag. This calms the diaphragm by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in your bloodstream.

Why are camels called “ships of the desert?”
Camels are called “ships of the desert” because of the way they move, not because of their transport capabilities. Camels sway from side to side because they move both legs on one side at the same time, elevating that side. This is called pacing, a ship-like motion which can make the rider feel sick.

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